Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Generation What?

Below is a quick rundown of most of the reactors being marketed as of early 2011.  I'm using the term "marketed" somewhat loosely here, as not all reactors are being offered in all countries due to intellectual property rights, nationalism, or other considerations.  I have ignored a number of small reactor designs that I feel are just vaporware at this point.  The resulting list is dominated by large (2850 megawatts thermal) to very large (4590 MWt) pressurized water reactors.  The two small PWRs plus the nine others account for exactly half of the 22 models.

An oddity to note is that Westinghouse no longer markets a PWR derived from the ones it created in the 1960s due to a series of corporate mergers.  But the basic design lives on in the EPR, APWR, Amtea1 and CPR-1000 designs.  Westinghouse, which is 77% owned by Toshiba, now offers reactors derived from Combustion Engineering designs.  A minor point to note is that both GE-Hitachi and Toshiba are both marketing the ABWR.

By neutron speed, there are:
By major type, there are:
By design family, there are:
  • 4 Westinghouse (WH) pressurized water reactors
  • 4 Combustion Engineering (CE) pressurized water reactors
  • 4 GE boiling water reactors
  • 3 VVER pressurized water reactors (Soviet/Russian PWRs evolved separately)
  • 2 CANDU heavy water-moderated reactors
  • 1 B&W pressurized water reactor (probably derived from US Navy designs, may be new)
  • 1 KLT-series pressurized water reactor (evolution of Russian Navy designs)
  • 1 BN-series sodium-cooled fast reactor (designed by a state-owned organization in Russia)
  • 1 new lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor (probably a clean sheet design, but may be derived)
  • 1 new sodium-cooled fast reactor (probably a new design) 
By generation, there are:
  • 12 "Generation III" designs (designs from the 1990s and 2000s with some passive safety features)
  • 7 "Generation II+" designs (slight improvements over 1960s designs)
  • 3 designs I haven't classified because I lack familiarity with them
The term "generation" was introduced by the DOE in order to simplify the presentation of its current strategy.  Right now it is pursing two goals: building evolved PWRs and BWRs (the Gen III models), and doing R&D on "Generation IV" reactors.  The marketing types have hijacked the nomenclature a bit, and have labeled some reactors "III+" as well as backfitted the "II+" designation on others.  I've ignored the III+ designation, but the II+ designation is not unreasonable because the designs have been worked on since they were first developed in the 1960s.

4Ssodium-cooled fast reactor?3010Toshiba Power Systemsnew SFR0/0
Power Modulelead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor?7525Hyperion Power Generationnew LFR0/0
BN-800sodium-cooled fast reactor ?2100800AtomstroyexportBN SFR0/1
EC6pressurized heavy water reactor II+2080690Atomic Energy Canada, LTDCANDU0/0
CPR-1000pressurized water reactor II+30001000China Guangdong Nuclear Power GroupANP (WH) PWR1/11
OPR-1000pressurized water reactor II+2825990Doosan Heavy Industries & ConstructionDHIC (CE) PWR8/5
System 80+pressurized water reactorII+34001120Westinghouse (Toshiba)CE PWR0/0
VVER-1000pressurized water reactorII+3000950AtomstroyexportVVER PWR2/5
VVER-1200pressurized water reactor II+32001170AtomstroyexportVVER PWR0/5
KLT-40Spressurized water reactorII+15035OKBM/AtomstroyexportSSSR PWR0/2
ABWRboiling water reactorIII39001380GE-Hitachi Nuclear EnergyGE BWR3/2
ABWRboiling water reactor III39001350Toshiba Power SystemsGE BWR2/0
ACR-1000heavy water boiling water reactor III32001000Atomic Energy Canada, LTDCANDU0/0
Atmea1pressurized water reactor III31501150 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries-Areva NPMHI/ANP (WH) PWR0/0
AP1000pressurized water reactorIII34001120Westinghouse (Toshiba)CE PWR0/5
APR1400pressurized water reactorIII40001350Doosan Heavy Industries & ConstructionDHIC (CE) PWR0/4
APWRpressurized water reactorIII44501500Mitsubishi Heavy IndustriesMHI (WH) PWR0/0
EPRpressurized water reactorIII45901630Areva Nuclear PowerANP (WH) PWR0/4
ESBWRboiling water reactor III45001600GE-Hitachi Nuclear EnergyGE BWR0/0
Kerenaboiling water reactorIII33701250Areva Nuclear PowerKWU (GE) BWR0/0
MIR-1200pressurized water reactorIII32001170Atomstroyexport/SkodaVVER PWR0/0
mPowerpressurized water reactorIII400125Babcock & WilcoxUSN PWR?0/0

* Added 2011/04/6: There's not a commonly accepted accepted acronym for the ACR-1000. Unlike the EC6 and older CANDU designs, the ACR-1000 uses heavy water only in the calandria, which is the vessel where the nuclear reactions take place. In the primary cooling loop it uses regular water, which generates steam in the secondary loop. To be consistent, older CANDU reactors would be HWPHWR and the ACR-1000 would be a HWPLWR. There have been similar heavy water reactors that boil light water in the primary cooling loop built.  They have been dubbed SGHWRs (steam generating heavy water reactors), which reverses the order of the coolant and moderator.

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